- (1882–1955)Born in Frosinone just south of Rome, Graziani finished World War I as a colonel but left army service for private life after that war. He returned to active duty in 1922 and was sent to Libya, where he coordinated efforts at putting down Senussi irregulars, who had effectively slowed Italian colonization. By 1930, he had hanged their leaders in front of what remained of their clans after 60,000 of their number had been killed. When he returned to Italy in 1934, it was as a general commanding an army corps.In the following year, he was sent to Ethiopiato prepare the attack on that country. His brutal success in subduing the Ethiopian forces—including the use of poison gas—led to his promotion to marshal. In 1936, he replaced his archrival, Pietro Badoglio, as viceroy of Ethiopia. When Graziani was repatriated in 1937, he was styled Marquis of Neghelli.In 1939, Graziani became chief of the General Staff, and in 1940 he was put in command of Italian forces in North Africa. They numbered over 300,000 but were still equipped with rifles of an 1891 design and had but 160 aircraft at their disposal. Accustomed to putting down nomadic tribesmen and inordinately proud of having been the first commander ever to use armored vehicles in the desert, Graziani realized too late that the party placemen around him in command positions were lacking in military experience. Far less numerous British and Commonwealth forces (two divisions faced Graziani’s 10) were better led and far better organized, so much so that early in January 1941 they forced Graziani to retreat so rapidly that he was relieved of his duties and summoned to Rome by a Commission of Inquiry.Deprived of his command, Graziani resumed private life until September 1943, when he rejoined Benito Mussolini in the Republic of Salo, in which he served as defense minister. On being captured by the advancing Allies, he avoided execution but was tried by Italian courts in 1948 and sentenced to 19 years’imprisonment for “collaboration with the German invader.” Amnestied after just five years, he became honorary president of the Movimento Sociale Italiano/ Italian Social Movement (MSI). He died in 1955 in Rome.See also Libya.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
Graziani, Rodolfo — ► (1882 1955) Mariscal italiano. Se mantuvo fiel a Mussolini tras la caída de este y en 1945 se rindió a los aliados, que lo condenaron a prisión … Enciclopedia Universal
Graziani, Rodolfo, marquess di Neghelli — ▪ Italian military officer born Aug. 11, 1882, Filettino, Italy died Jan. 11, 1955, Rome Italian field marshal, administrator, and adherent of Benito Mussolini. After service in Eritrea and Libya before World War I and in Macedonia… … Universalium
Graziani, Rodolfo, marqués de Neghelli — (11 ago. 1882, Filettino, Italia–11 ene. 1955, Roma). Mariscal de campo italiano, partidario de Benito Mussolini. Fue comandante en jefe de las fuerzas italianas en Libia (1930–34), gobernador de la Somalia italiana (1935–36) y virrey de Etiopía… … Enciclopedia Universal
Graziani — Graziani, Rodolfo … Enciclopedia Universal
Graziani — is an Italian family name, and may refer to:* Ariel Graziani * Ercole Graziani the Younger * Francesco Graziani, Italian footballer * Gaspar Graziani * Girolamo Graziani * Izhak Graziani * Rodolfo Graziani, high ranking Italian military officer… … Wikipedia
Rodolfo — Rodolfo, Francisco Carlos José (Rodolpheo o Raoul) ► Nombre de varios reyes de Borgoña. ► Rodolfo I (m. 912) Rey de la Borogña Transjurana en 888 912. Sucedió a Carlos III el Gordo. ► Rodolfo II (m. 937) Rey de Borgoña en 912 937 y de Italia en… … Enciclopedia Universal
Graziani — Graziani, Rodolfo, Marchese di Neghelli [ne gɛ ] (seit 1936), italienischer Marschall (seit 1936), * Filettino (Provinz Frosinone) 11. 8. 1882, ✝ Rom 11. 1. 1955; leitete 1921 31 die Rückeroberung Libyens, befehligte im Krieg gegen Äthiopien… … Universal-Lexikon
Rodolfo Graziani — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Graziani. Rodolfo Graziani … Wikipédia en Français
Rodolfo Graziani — Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (* 11. August 1882 in Filettino, Provinz Frosinone; † 11. Januar 1955 in Rom) war ein italienischer General (später Marschall von Italien) und Politiker. In der Zwischenkriegszeit sowie der Anfangszeit des… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Rodolfo Graziani — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Rodolfo Graziani Mariscal Años de servicio 1904 1945 Lealtad … Wikipedia Español